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Level 28 35 Collins St. Melbourne, Victoria, Victoria Australia. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic. Cookies are used by this site. To decline or learn more, visit our Cookies page. This page was processed by apollo8 in 0.

Skip to main content. Productivity Commission , Vol. Productivity Commission Government of Australia. Gambling Productivity Commission , Gambling, Vol. Gambling Productivity Commission , Vol. You are currently viewing this paper. Abstract Gambling was substantially liberalised in most Australian states and territories in the s. Commission, Productivity, Gambling February 26, The exclusivity period expired in Northern Territory Established in Northern NT division exclusivity licence set in for a 20 year period until subject to extension for a further 5 years till Northern Territory Established in Southern NT division exclusivity until Source: The scope of these assessments is typically broad, for example the Victorian Casino Control Act sets out the following standard for casino operators see Box 3.

Matters to be considered in determining applications 1 The Commission must not grant an application for a casino licence unless satisfied that the applicant, and each associate of the applicant as defined in section 4 , is a suitable person to be concerned in or associated with the management and operation of a casino.

Victorian Casino Control Act , Section 9, pp Gaming staff must also be licensed in all jurisdictions, with this licencing requirement being built around probity checks. For example, under Victorian legislation any casino employee who is employed in any of the following capacities is required to hold an appropriate licence: All jurisdictions have measures in place to ensure that casino games are not rigged, such as requiring gaming machines to be approved, regulating payout rates for gaming machines, monitoring the operation of gaming machines, and approving the rules of table games.

Measures related to ensuring the games offered are fair are also included in many of the codes of practice of Australian casinos see Section 5. The justification for regulation with respect to casinos is indisputable for the simple fact that it is government legislation which established casinos in each jurisdiction, government controls the rate of entry of competing businesses e.

Regulations are imposed on the industry to assist government with respect to a broad range of obligations such as disclosure regulation e. Tax arrangements are designed they are often negotiated to facilitate international competitiveness e. It is acknowledged by government, by the industry and by the community that harms arise from virtually all forms of excess consumption. Government regulation prohibits certain behaviours such as the service of alcohol to persons while gambling; industry regulation provides for exclusion from venues and provides for Codes of Practice; individual self-regulation is fundamentally adherence to one s own standards of behaviour but we are all, at some time or in some way, guilty of self-regulation failure.

Individual self-regulation is not fool proof. Excess consumption of alcohol leading to impaired control is a self-regulation failure just as is excess time and money spent gambling which results in harms to the individual and harms to others negative externalities. Recognition that excess consumption of alcohol, gambling and other products leads to harm to the individual, to those related to the individual e.

They include, for example, severe penalties imposed on the individual for driving under the influence of alcohol, for violent acts committed under the influence of alcohol, for exclusion from premises if deemed to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol and restrictions on types and times of advertising.

The providers of goods and services are also required to exercise a duty of care and in many instances there are guidelines, sanctions and penalties that prohibit certain actions.

There are fines and sanctions where alcohol is continued to be sold to a person known to be intoxicated; there are now lock-out or closure times to restrict individuals moving from one entertainment venue to another in an effort to moderate the consumption of alcohol and reduce acts of aggression that often follow from the excess consumption of alcohol.

In part, because of the failure of individuals to self-regulate their own behaviour, and a legal obligation of duty of care, then providers of goods and services are required to act in a manner that does not harm the individual or could foreseeably harm others. All employers and staff have a duty of care that, with respect to the hospitality and gaming industry, leads directly to training courses and certification in the Responsible Service of Alcohol and certification in Responsible Gambling.

Staff employed in such activities, are required by legislation, to have undertaken and completed training courses related to alcohol and gaming. They key role of AUSTRAC is to protect the integrity of Australia s financial system through expertise in countering money laundering and terrorism financing.

The crime of money laundering involves diverse and often sophisticated methodologies. It corrupts and intermingles with legitimate transactions in areas such as banking and finance, casinos and gaming, high-value assets like real estate and luxury vehicles, international trade, and international remittance and foreign exchange services AUSTRAC p. An obvious reason for this is that these venues offer money launderers opportunities to camouflage illegitimate transactions among legitimate gambling activity 16 while providing access to activities that have high cash turnover.

Perhaps less well known and much less appreciated is that many casinos and gaming facilities offer services similar to financial institutions. They include bank deposit accounts, foreign exchange transactions, money changing, electronic funds transfers, cheque issuing, and safety deposit boxes.

These additional services are also vulnerable to abuse for money laundering purposes. Illicit cash can be washed through electronic gaming machines in a number of ways.

AUSTRAC provide two examples with respect to casinos where the environment facilitates the use of large volumes of cash and may present opportunities for money laundering and or illegal activity see Box 3. VIP members can place high-value bets in these rooms.

In compliance with their AML regulatory obligations, casinos closely monitor and track VIP and high-stakes gaming activity. High-stakes gaming is vulnerable to abuse because it is common for players to gamble with large volumes of cash, the source and ultimate ownership of which may not be readily discernible.

Casino-based tourism and junkets Casino-based tourism is recognised nationally and internationally as being potentially susceptible to money laundering. Junket operators organise gambling holidays to casinos. Common risks include people carrying large amounts of cash into or out of countries, junket operators moving large sums electronically between casinos or to other jurisdictions, and layers of obscurity around the source and ownership of money on junket tours players may elect to have junket representatives purchase and cash-in casino chips on their behalf.

Junket representatives are often the main contact between the casino and the playing group, which can limit the face-to-face contact between gaming venues and players. This can restrict the venue s ability to conduct effective customer due diligence on individual junket players.

Authorities in Asia suspected that the suspect had defrauded a number of international banks and sought AUSTRAC s assistance investigating the target s financial activity in Australia. AUSTRAC data identified the suspect had conducted significant international funds transfers to Australian casinos, had visited Australia to gamble at the casinos, and had left Australia with substantial amounts of money, presumed to be the proceeds of his gambling.

The suspect was arrested and subsequently admitted to Asian authorities that he had embezzled approximately AUD78 million from four international banks by forging signatures of executives of his company and opening accounts in the name of his employer.

Over a four-year period the suspect transferred approximately AUD million into an Australian casino account via international funds transfer instructions IFTIs. The suspect pleaded guilty in Asia to six counts of forgery and eight counts of cheating and was subsequently sentenced to 42 years imprisonment. AUSTRAC , p Domestic cases involving fraudulent activity and money laundering and global fraud involving the use of electronic fund transfers highlight the importance of probity and integrity checks of casino operations by an independent regulatory body.

It is without question that financial oversight to counter opportunities for money laundering and regulatory review of operational procedures at casinos is necessary to minimise all forms of criminal activity.

Our interest in this report and earlier reports by the same author centred on the relationship between gambling and fraud. The most recent report cites evidence to the effect that gambling addiction was the main motivating factor in more than half the cases in the research.

It was also reported that one perpetrator had three prior convictions for gambling related fraud and yet no detailed background check was undertaken on him. Gambling addiction was identified as a key motivator of fraudulent behaviours, a critical and early warning sign or red flag while lifestyle improvement and gambling were by far the most prevalent reasons the frauds were committed p.

More than half of the frauds in this research were motivated by a gambling addiction. Previous research studies have highlighted gambling addiction as a significant motivator in employee fraud. In order to understand what forms of gambling were most attractive to the perpetrators, an analysis was undertaken of the modes of gambling. In 44 cases out of 62, the modes of gambling were identified.

In the majority of cases, there was evidence that one main preferred gambling mode was used. On occasions, multiple gambling modes were identified to the courts. Although it is recognised that the entire proceeds of the frauds would not have been spent gambling in every case, the overwhelming evidence in the cases that were reviewed was that the addiction resulted in not only most of the fraudulent proceeds being gambled, but also other income and family assets, resulting in little evidence of lavish lifestyle or asset accumulation.

The report concludes with evidence provided in court to illustrate gambling behaviours, amounts gambled and the frequency of gambling we refer to separate cases involving casinos and poker machines only here: The casino invited her to be a member of the VIP slots club and conveyed other privileges on the basis that a certain level of turnover was recorded on her membership card.

It would seem reasonable referring to the individual in Box 3. Red flags might include relative to an average , inter alia, the frequency of visitation and any pattern of visitation, amounts gambled and amounts lost based on turnover, the rate of losses and trends in gambling behaviour.

What would a simple matching confidential of the person s occupation and residence against the pattern of gambling and losses sustained have suggested to any reasonable person? The UK Gaming Commission pointed to what it considered a regulatory failing where operators were reluctant to interact with commercially valuable customers as clearly this woman was.

VCGLR and ILGA have concluded that their respective casinos remain suitable to hold a casino licence and that both have suitable policies and procedures in place to ensure there is no criminal influence or corruption. Investigation by regulators and other authorities of criminal activity usually satisfies obligations of casinos with respect to high-order criminal surveillance and monitoring such as for the Australian Crime Commission, AUSTRAC and anti-money laundering and Australian Customs and Border Protection.

That is to say, casinos are assessed as monitoring and having in place safeguards and operating procedures that are capable of detecting organised criminal activity, money laundering and the like and reporting this to the relevant authority.

A second level of investigation and actions taken by Police include the exclusion of bikie gangs or other criminal gangs from casinos, where it is known they attempt to launder money, deal drugs and intimidate patrons. Notwithstanding, it is generally lower-order criminal behaviour that occurs in or proximate to casinos that is most often reported in the media the activities of loan sharks, the extent of theft, assault, theft from motor vehicles, drunkenness, intimidation of patrons who incur gambling debts and the like.

The Age recently headlined Casino crime figures paint distributing picture May 17, 18 that Crown Casino complex is reported to be the scene of a crime every 10 hours and a violent crime every third day.

Senior management of casinos and others quite appropriately in our view note that casinos attract large numbers of visitors each day which they do Crown 52, ave. In this context prohibiting intoxicated persons from entering a casino is important as is much greater vigilance around the responsible service of alcohol.

However, the critical point we raise here is not about penalties, fines or censure. It is that the regulators who most often are responsible for both gaming and liquor regulation need to accurately analyse and report police statistics and casino report data and more appropriately respond to crime statistics.

It might, for example, give cause to bar certain persons from being in the vicinity of a casino. It might highlight the association of alcohol consumption, gambling and certain crimes.

Confidence in the regulator that it is not light handed because government is both a regulator and a beneficiary of gambling revenue is paramount. The most recent VCGLR review did not provide a complete and informative analysis of the crime statistics nor their implications e. Research into the economic and social cost of casinos should provide more detailed analysis of Police statistics to estimate the cost of violent crime including assaults, sexual assaults, robberies, abductions, non-violent crimes such as theft, drug trafficking, public disturbance and financial scams including fraud, forgery, counterfeiting and deception.

In addition we make reference to the recommendations of the UK Gaming Commission consultation document on proposed amendments to the social responsibility provisions in the licence conditions and codes of practice for all operators, specifically because it addresses the question of responsible gambling and casinos the principal subject of this report and because Australian and UK regulators operate in relatively similar policy environment with similar community attitudes The Victorian Commission for Gambling and Liquor Regulation VCGLR The Victorian Parliament passed legislation on 27 October to create an independent gambling and liquor regulator in Victoria the Victorian Commission for Gambling and Liquor Regulation VCGLR.

In assuming the functions of the VCGR the VCGLR is responsible for regulating electronic gaming machines, wagering, Club Keno, interactive gaming, community and charitable gaming, bookmakers, public lotteries, trade promotion lotteries, bingo and gambling at Crown Melbourne.

The liquor industry is regulated in accordance with the Liquor Control Reform Act , which is focused on minimising harm, developing a diversity of licensed facilities to reflect community expectation and assisting in the responsible development of the liquor and hospitality industries.

In assuming the functions of the RAV the VCGLR is responsible for coordinating alcohol policy, administering the liquor licensing system, regulating the alcohol industry through risk-based compliance activities and providing leadership across the Victorian Government on alcohol policy reform.

Review of Casino Operator and Licence Pursuant to section 25 of the Casino Control Act which requires investigation of four specific matters concerning the casino operator and its licence, the VCGLR is required at least once every five years, to investigate and form an opinion about 1 the casino operator s suitability to hold a casino licence, 2 its compliance with relevant statutory obligations, 3 its compliance with relevant contractual obligations and 4 the public interest in the continuation of the Melbourne Casino licence.

The Fifth Casino Review was the most recent review of the casino operator and licence conducted under section 25 of the Casino Control Act. The review focused on the period 1 July to 30 June and was conducted just before the halfway point of the Crown Melbourne Limited licence period. Notwithstanding the conclusion that overall, Crown Melbourne Limited has a high level of compliance with its statutory and contractual obligations, that Crown Melbourne Limited has generally been compliant with its obligations in relation to responsible gambling and that it treats its obligations in relation to people who breach their exclusion orders seriously the VCGLR noted that several opportunities for improvement have been identified.

The VCGLR made recommendations about implementing a management plan for detecting persons subject to an exclusion order attempting to enter VIP gaming rooms; providing additional support for people who have had their self-exclusion orders revoked; further trials of facial recognition technology to improve the detection of persons subject to an exclusion order; and requesting prospective Signature Club 21 members to disclose whether they have ever been excluded from other gambling premises.

Recommendation 5 Crown Melbourne, to assess the effectiveness of the use of player data in relation to intensity, duration and frequency of play as a tool to assist in identifying potential problem gamblers, trial as an initial indicator the use of player data analysis to identify patrons who may be having problems with their gambling. This recommendation is consistent with the observation of the UK Gaming Commission that information available to casino operators for commercial purposes has not been routinely made available to help guide decisions about customer interaction 5.

It seems obvious that information on the frequency of play, the time and duration of play should be monitored as is the case for many casinos in Europe. Crown noted they do use player data in conjunction with observable signs of problem gambling but that they would commence a trial using player data focussed on duration and frequency of play as an initial trigger for intervention. Australian casinos are generally much larger with multiple entry points when compared to most casinos in Europe that most often have single entry points and often requirements to show identity which is recorded.

It is difficult if not impossible in the Australian context to record frequency of visit to a casino even if a patron was a loyalty cardholder. Recommendation 6 Crown Melbourne develops and implements a management plan for detecting excluded people attempting to gain entry into the VIP gaming areas. Crown agreed to develop and report back on a management plan to improve processes and procedures. The first step was to amend the application form for the loyalty program to require whether the person had ever been subject to an exclusion order.

A number of other reforms with respect to VIP gaming areas have been implemented e. International guests staying at the hotel who request entry to the VIP Gaming area will be provided with access. Guests need to show their room key card to the staff on duty and they will be given access. It is a marketing and analytical tool used by Crown to confer benefits to players based on purchases of food and beverage, retail, hotel and gambling history.

It enables voluntary pre-commitment of time and money and once exceeded loyalty points cannot be accumulated. There are five primary tier levels of membership Final Report: Recommendation 7 Consider the appropriateness of Signature Club membership for individuals who have been the subject of exclusion orders from other venues and in other jurisdictions.

Crown agreed to amend its loyalty program application form. Recommendation 8 Crown Melbourne trial facial recognition technology to identify excluded persons. Crown agreed to conduct a trial noting that it was already voluntarily conducting a trial of facial recognition. SACES notes that there are limitations with respect to the capability of the technology. Recommendation 9 Crown Melbourne ensures no advertising or other promotional material is sent to a person who has previously been the subject of a self-exclusion order for an appropriate period and formalise the selfexclusion revocation follow-up process.

Crown accepted this recommendation. Recommendation 10 Increase availability of game rules and improve communication of important variations to casino games.

The recommendations and responses provide an insight into the relationship of the regulator and the casino operator. The regulator receives daily reports on various matters, it conducts its own audits and currently maintains an on-site presence at the Melbourne Casino. In summary, the recommendations on balance essentially deal with player data and much greater analysis of player data to identify problem gamblers, player recognition, exclusion and communication and initiatives to improve detection.

The other side of the coin, is the Responsible Service of Alcohol and the response by a casino to intoxicated persons. Intoxicated persons are a breach of licence conditions; intoxication poses the risk of excess gambling, alcohol-related assault, violence within the vicinity of a casino if evicted and a direct threat to the safety of all patrons. The VCGLR Fifth Report noted that in some 4, intoxicated persons were detected around gaming tables which is equal to the number of self-excluded patrons approximately 4, The last such review was conducted in The review contained a number of recommendations regarding the conduct and regulation of the casino.

Recommendations that relate to the responsible service of gambling are listed here with a summary of subsequent actions taken by the ILGA and The Star Casino. Recommendation 5 An investigation to be conducted by The Star Casino before December should consider the usefulness of facial recognition technology in detecting excluded persons entering the casino. The ILGA did note the potential benefits of such technology given the number and nature of re-entries and the volume of patrons entering the casino.

While the casino had experimented with technology in the technology had continued to advance since that time. They have been conducting a trial of NEC Facial Recognition software in which they say has been very positive and best so far in terms of accuracy and speed compared to all other software tested. The Authority continues to monitor The Star's developments in this area.

Recommendation 6 That The Star and the Authority agree on trialling a process whereby those wishing to self-exclude can do so externally, preferably by use of technology and with satisfactorily identifying the patron. The UK Gambling Commission also referred to the importance of any arrangement to establish a self-exclusion arrangement without visiting premises. ILGA Update The Star has introduced processes for its Responsible Gambling Manager to meet with patrons offsite to discuss any concerns with regards to their gambling at the casino.

There are 2 options for this: Meet with the RG Manager offsite who can talk them through the process and take their photo for the exclusion database.

The counsellors with these organisations will walk the client through the process and provide the ILGA with their photo for our database. Recommendation 7 That the Authority conducts audits on private gaming room access periodically and consider disciplinary action against the casino operator in the event that excluded persons enter the private gaming rooms.

While the concern of the UK Gambling Commission was wider than just excluded persons they reported we have found across a range of operators that staff involved in managing VIP or high value customers have tended to be somewhat insulated from the social responsibility obligations applying elsewhere in the business. This has led in some circumstances to regulatory failings where operators have been reluctant to interact with commercially valuable customers on social responsibility or prevention of crime grounds for fear of losing them to competitors.

The Star s surveillance branch also continues to conduct private gaming room access audits. Recommendation 15 The Star should revisit its list of indicators of problem gambling as research lists many more activities or behaviours that indicate problems.

The Authority may, in due course wish to inquire of The Star, the action it has taken in this regard. The list of indicators has been provided to the Authority and has been rolled out to staff of The Star South Australia: Independent Gambling Authority IGA There does not appear to be any statement directing the Authority to conduct any review in any specified time period.

The researchers were informed that there is provision in the Casino Act for the Authority to conduct reviews of the suitability of the licensee from time to time.

Although the provision is worded differently to those in Victoria and New South Wales, the scope of the investigation is their equivalent. The Act provides for the Authority to recover the cost of the investigation from the licensee. There is, at present, no investigation planned in relation to SkyCity, Adelaide UK Gambling Commission In their foreword to the consultation document 22 on improving social responsibility measures with respect to gambling, the UK Gambling Commission acknowledged that debates on gambling are characterised by often polarised and deeply-held views, but that two fundamental concepts needed to be accepted in order to have an informed debate and as an objective basis for the formulation of gambling policy and regulation: One does not have to be a gambling addict to experience harm.

Harm can arise from excessive binge gambling. It is important to remember that harm can and does impact on friends, families, employers and communities; 2 second and this is a point that is often lost gambling is fun. People who gamble do so generally because they enjoy it. They make an informed adult choice to gamble because they want to. In an open and free society like ours, that is a decision they are perfectly entitled to make, provided that in doing so they do not impose unacceptable costs on society through harming themselves or others.

The Productivity Commission in their two national studies have consistently referred to the two concepts stated above and the need to balance the benefits and costs of measures to minimise harm relative to informed adult choice. The UK Commission noted the rapid introduction of new products and new forms of gambling, the equally rapid developments in technology enabling growth in on-line gambling and changes in consumer preferences, but voiced concern in regard to the corruption of sporting events, expansion of gambling advertising and harms from gambling.

The policy environment needed to keep pace with these and other developments. Industry also had a role to play in minimising harm from gambling and this required continual improvements in player protection strategies. There is a growing understanding that a sustainable and successful future for the gambling sector depends on public confidence in its efforts to minimise the harm that its products can and do cause. Ultimately, society is much more likely to accept a gambling industry that is unequivocally pursuing means of limiting harm arising from its products.

Play Information Play information has the potential to help individuals in this regard i. Access to Sessional Data As a minimum we would expect all gamblers to be provided, or be able to access, their sessional net win or loss. In some cases the taxation revenue was hypothecated for particular purposes, for example all taxation revenue, and any distributed surpluses, from Lotteries SA must be paid into the SA Hospitals Fund, except for revenues from sports related betting such as the pools, the revenue for which is hypothecated for sports related grants and programs.

The nature of current Commonwealth-State fiscal relations creates pressures for state and territory governments to maximise their gambling tax revenues as these are one of a limited range of own source revenues available to the states.

These gambling taxes are usually based on gambling revenue either gross turnover or net revenue but can include flat licence fees. The rates of taxes applied vary not only between jurisdictions, but also by gambling product e. EGMs, wagering, racing, table games , venue type, by the type of gambler e. Taxes are a significant part of the casino industry s cost structure, typically second only to labour costs Australasian Casino Association 24, Gambling taxes paid to State and Territory governments account for just under 60 per cent of the total tax revenue from casinos in each year shown, with the remaining 40 per cent coming from general business taxes.

Casinos account for It is also notable that effective tax rates on casino gambling are low. However, effective tax rates on EGMs in casinos are much higher than tax rates on table games; some casinos are required to pay a community benefit levy whereas others do not; tax rates for VIP gamblers are structured to support the competitiveness of each casino in this sector of the gambling market and rebates may be offered for expenses incurred in attracting VIP patrons e.

Tax revenues include taxes on gambling operators' revenues, licence fees and mandatory contributions. Values are nominal values. Effective tax rates for gaming machines and lotteries will be slightly overstated as taxation revenue for these products includes taxation of keno in selected jurisdictions, but keno revenue is recorded separately. In real terms, total State and Territory tax revenues from casino gaming grew 3.

Most of the growth occurred in the s following the establishment of casinos in Melbourne and Sydney, which more than doubled Australian gambling taxes generated from casinos. The extent to which taxation and levies from casinos make a contribution to state budgets is best illustrated by real per capita government revenue from casino gaming.

Western Australia is a special case in that real per capita government revenue from casino gaming derived almost exclusively from the casino relative to other gambling taxes. Casino government revenues include community based keno.

Revenue data from 1 July onwards are not comparable to the preceding years because of the impact of the charges brought about by the introduction of the GST. As specified in OESR ,, the data is not provided, estimated or require clarification. As specified in OESR , the data is not provided, estimated or require clarification.

In Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory a regular fee is applied periodically annually or quarterly. It is applied monthly in Tasmania. South Australia s recent upfront payments are part of an agreement in which the casino will expand its operation in exchange for being granted the rights to additional EGMs and gaming tables; the base on which taxes are imposed varies between the States. Queensland and the Northern Territory each apply different tax rates across the casinos in their jurisdiction, with regional casinos having lower rates than those in major cities; New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia and the Northern Territory impose a mandatory community benefit levy earmarked for social and community programs in addition to gambling taxation; the complexity of tax arrangements are varied.

Victoria had the most complex tax arrangements among the States prior to a recent agreement between the casino and the Victorian government. A super tax was recently abolished it was payable if revenues exceeded a specific threshold on VIP Program Play and the tax on gaming machines has increased as part of an agreement in The ACT has the simplest tax arrangements among the States, imposing a flat rate of The amount of government revenue from casino gaming collected by each State and Territory government is principally driven by the size of casino gambling expenditures.

Western Australia is slightly above the all Australian average Figure 3. Amount is indexed annually each year on 1 July. A top rate of From 1 July Regular Players Super tax A tax on gross gaming revenue gaming machines plus table games above the base amount. From 24 December to 23 December Automated table games At Gaming machines at maximum of The Federal Group has exclusive rights to conduct casino operations and operate gaming machines in Tasmania for a 15 year period starting from 1 July At the conclusion of this period, the licence converts to a rolling five year licence renewable annually.

The tax is based on gross profit earned in a financial year. Table games at 0. EGM s at Table Games Both casinos 9. Gross gaming revenue equates to amount bet less amount won by players. Premium table games incl. Premium gaming machines at The gaming tax rate applying to casino table games is 0.

From 1 July , a single flat tax rate of Reference Period Payment of taxation is weekly. Payment of taxation is required monthly within 7 days of the end of the month. Super taxis calculated annually and payment is required by 7 July of the following financial year. Taxes are collected monthly in arrears. Payments are due on or before the 7 th day of the month for the period month s activity.

Payments are due on or before the 7 th day of the month for the previous month s activity. Payments are made monthly within 10 days of end of the month relating to previous month s activity. Payments are due on or before the 10 th day of the month for the previous month s activity. Casino government revenues include community-based keno. Revenue data from 1 July onwards are not comparable to the preceding years because of the impact of the changes brought about by the introduction of the GST.

It is equivalent to the gross profit of casino operators. It does not include community-based keno. As noted previously rates for all casinos were adjusted or rebates provided in to offset the impact of the GST, and so tax rates are not strictly comparable between the period before and after the introduction of the GST. Australian Casino Gamblers we consider who are casino gamblers, the characteristics of EGM and table game players, responsible gambling measures and impacts on local populations including costs and benefits such as tourism.

The final chapter in this Section reports the views of casino patrons from 12 focus groups conducted in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Casino Gamblers Summary of Findings Casinos offer a diversity of gambling activities, some of which are entirely chance-based e. Those who are younger and male and who gamble on a wider range of activities are more likely than all gamblers to a gamble at a casino and b report problems associated with gambling.

New Zealand evidence suggests that the proximity of people to non-casino based EGMs is more likely to influence the development of harm as opposed to their proximity to casinos. As a result, the social, economic and psychological factors associated with different activities may vary.

Some of these important structural characteristics include: Some, such as blackjack and poker, involve genuine elements of skill so that it is possible for players to improve their performance over time by being able to keep track of the cards out of the deck or monitor behaviour of other gamblers. Table games such as roulette, craps and baccarat are all games of chance, but involve complex rules or enable complex decisions to make about where to place bets.

These choices can influence the extent to which people believe that the outcomes can be influenced by different playing strategies. Other activities such as electronic gaming machines EGMs , chocolate wheels, or keno involve pure chance and are probably less likely to be considered games involving skill by the majority of players.

Games also differ in their continuity. Some, such as electronic gaming machines, may be very continuous so that players can make multiple bets per minute, whereas table games may require much longer periods between placing bets and observing the outcome. All of these factors may play a role in influencing the attractiveness of the activities to different people and their likelihood of causing harm.

Those who gamble because they enjoy a challenge, or to test their skills, may be attracted to table games, whereas those who only want to escape or relax may be content to play gaming machines. Evidence in support of this view emerged in a study conducted by Stevens and Young who conducted a secondary analysis of data collected as part of the Northern Territory prevalence survey.

Participation scores were analysed using factor analysis. The results showed that activities clustered on two main factors that aligned with the skill-chance dimension. The first Factor 1 included racing, table games and sports-betting, whereas Factor 2 included EGMs, scratch tickets and keno.

Such differences appear to be clearly evident to players. In another study, Delfabbro asked casino gamblers to rate the degree of skill involved in variety of activities. All other activities scored towards the low end of the skill-scale, with the lowest scores being recorded for lotteries and Keno. In other words, for these activities, people did not believe that any strategy or system could increase their chances of winning.

Those who like to play chance games and who have a smaller budget may be more attracted to gaming machines because of the relatively low entry price. On the other hand, because gaming machines afford a much more rapid form of gambling, they may be more likely to lead to impulsive gambling that leads to harm. Current evidence suggests that more continuous forms of gambling are much more likely to generate gambling-related problems than other forms Delfabbro, ; Productivity Commission, 4.

Similar to their overseas counterparts, Australian casinos provide access to range of gambling products. All casinos, with the exception of Canberra Casino, provide gaming machines; most provide access to keno; and all have a varying range of table games including blackjack, roulette, baccarat, dice games e. Since not all of these activities are confined to casinos, it is not always easy to ascertain what proportion of the population gambles on each of these products in casinos unless questions are specifically worded to indicate the location of the gambling.

For example, reports of gambling on EGMs can include a combination of hotel, club or casino gambling. Keno can be played almost anywhere, including locations such as newsagents. Card games can be played at home, in private tournaments, or on the Internet. Even when questions are worded so as to capture specific casino games, categories are often grouped together so that it is not possible to discern which specific table games are most popular e.

According to the most recent estimates, gambling at casinos is less frequently undertaken than at other venues. When these people were asked where they mainly gambled, Data on all venues of gambling as opposed to the most frequent venue are collected less often, but in the Productivity Commission s national survey in which 39 per cent of respondents indicated that they played EGMs at any venue; 30 per cent of adults reported having played EGMs at a club in the past year, 18 per cent at a hotel and 17 per cent at a casino.

Of these gamblers 35 per cent played only once per year and 56 per cent played less than monthly but more than annually.

Only 8 per cent of table game players reported gambling more than monthly and less than 0. Similar figures were found in Victoria s prevalence study which found that only 4. Characteristics of those playing EGMs There is little evidence that those who choose to play EGMs at a casino as opposed to hotel or club have any distinctive demographic characteristics.

Accordingly, the following outlines the characteristics of those playing EGMs in general. In the most recent South Australian study Social Research Centre, , with a population prevalence of Characteristics of those playing table games in casinos Prevalence research is generally very consistent with respect to the demographic factors that predict involvement in casino table games.

In the most recent South Australian study Social Research Centre, , with an overall population prevalence of 6. Similar figures emerged in the Victorian survey Schottler Consulting, with even larger differences observed for the comparison between men and women 7. Both surveys show that the typical Australian casino table game player is likely to be a younger educated male who lives in the city and who has a higher income.

Relatively few older people or women gamble on these activities. International evidence suggests that the demographic correlates of casino gambling in general are likely to vary considerably depending upon the country or the nature of the casino itself. A major study in New Zealand Rossen, found that males and people aged years were more likely to gamble on casino table games. People living in rural locations were less likely to gamble at casinos.

In a survey of 1, patrons visiting smaller British casinos, Fisher found that the average regular or weekly casino visitor was more likely to be aged over 40 years, to be of a non-european background, and to have no partner.

Hong and Jang conducted a community survey in Korea and tried to differentiate between those who had visited a casino, intended to do so, or were not interested.

Consistent with Australian findings, casino gamblers were more likely to be younger, male, single, well-educated and have higher income than the other groups. However, as shown in another study by Chen et al. In their survey of 1, subscribers to Slots Magazine, it was found that the typical slotmachine gambler was more likely to be female and aged in her 50s or older.

The demographic factors that predict EGM gambling at casinos may be more similar to those that predict involvement in other venues. This is certainly very consistent with what is found in Australia. Statistically, people are more likely to gamble on any form of gambling including gaming machines if they are younger, but casino EGM gambling in contrast to table games is much more likely to be observed across a broader range of demographic groups and may, in the case of older people, be the principal form of gambling undertaken.

Overview Analyses similar to those undertaken in South Australia and Victoria were also applied to data collected as part of the New South Wales prevalence study. Originally reported by Ogilvy Illuminations, this study involved a telephone survey of 10, New South Wales adults. As in the other surveys, respondents were interviewed about their gambling habits, personal characteristics demographics their general health and well-being and whether they had experienced any problems associated with gambling.

The prevalence of problem gambling was estimated by administering the Problem Gambling Severity Index Ferris and Wynne, to all respondents who had gambled at least once in the previous 12 months. Given that the results for comparing casino gamblers with the rest of the sample are likely to be very similar see South Australian results the analysis was confined only to comparisons involving gambler groups.

Methodology The New South Wales survey included several questions that made it possible to identify people who gamble at the casino. The first question asked whether people had gambled on table games roulette, blackjack, poker at a casino in the previous 12 months.

Another question asked respondents who played EGMs to indicate whether they primarily gambled at a casino. These questions are arguably not as precise as in the other two surveys because there was no question which asked about keno gambling and the venue question did not allow one to identify people who gambled at a casino on some occasions. As with the South Australian analyses, it is important to note that the questions did not allow one to identify people who ONLY gambled at a casino if such people did exist.

Thus, when this report refers to casino gamblers it is referring to people who may also have gambled outside a casino or on other gambling forms e. Analysis of the New South Wales data also differs from the other States in that unweighted data are presented due to the use of weights that did not enable analyses to be conducted using the original sample size weights gave the equivalent population numbers for each characteristic or combination of characteristics.

Use of weighted data in this context would have artificially inflated the level of statistical power. Using these selection criteria, it was possible to identify people who gambled at a casino either on table games, EGMs or keno. This group comprised 3. Of this , there were people who reported playing casino table games and 24 who predominantly played EGMs at a casino.

The were described as casino gamblers and these were compared with the 6, noncasino gamblers. Results Demographic differences Casino and other gamblers were compared on a variety of demographic characteristics. As indicated in Table 4. The results show that casino gamblers are significantly more likely to gamble on wagering activities such as race and sports betting, poker machines and other gaming activities and also keno. Lottery gambling was the only category that was more common in the other gambler group.

Casino gamblers were also more likely to play private card games for money and to participate in poker tournaments. Internet gambling is not a category of gambling. Problem gambling in casino gamblers In general, regular casino gamblers were found to be more likely to be problem gamblers than other gamblers as based on the PGSI classifications Table 4.

These differences were more strongly observed in the New South Wales than in the other two surveys. The results show that over 10 per cent of casino gamblers in the general population are likely to be moderate risk to problem gamblers.

PGSI classifications in regular gamblers: Those who visit the casino to gamble are more likely to be younger and to be in paid employment, but there were no gender differences. Casino gamblers tend to gamble on a wider range of activities and this includes on both strategic activities such as racing and sports betting as well as EGMs, keno and scratch tickets. Casino gamblers were again more likely to be in the higher risk segments as classified by the PGSI.

These data were drawn from the Statewide prevalence survey undertaken under the guidance of the South Australian Department for Communities and Social Inclusion. The prevalence of problem gambling was estimated by administering the Problem Gambling Severity Index Ferris and Wynne, to all respondents who had gambled in the previous 12 months.

Details of the full prevalence report are available on the DCSI website www. In this section, we examine one of the principal research questions in this project: Methodology The South Australian survey included two questions that made it possible to identify people who gamble at the casino. A second question asked whether people had played gaming machines predominantly at a casino. It is important, however, to note that the questions did not allow one to identify people who ONLY gambled at a casino if such people did exist.

Using these selection criteria, it was possible to identify people who gambled at the casino either on table games or EGMs. This group comprised 7. Of this , there were people who reported playing casino table games, who gambled on EGMs predominantly at the casino and who engaged in both activities at a casino.

The were described as casino gamblers and the remaining sample as other. It was also then possible to distinguish between people who gambled at casinos and those who never did non-casino gamblers. Results Demographic differences The first set of analyses examined how casino gamblers differ from the rest of the general population. Casino gamblers and others in the sample were compared on a variety of demographic characteristics see Table 4.

There was, however, little evidence to suggest any social or cultural differences i. When these analyses were repeated for a comparison between casino gamblers and other gamblers, the results were very similar, except that there was no longer any significant difference in the percentage of respondents who reported higher levels of educational attainment Table 4. The n s vary across comparisons due to missing data and weighting effects.

Gambling activities Table 4. The results clearly show that the typical casino gambler tends to gamble much more frequently and on a wider range of activities. For example, casino gamblers are over three times more likely to gamble on gaming machines, almost three times more likely to gamble on racing, 7 times time more likely to gamble on sports and 10 times more likely to gamble on the internet or on private games. This is generally consistent with the observation that those who most often visit casinos younger males tend to be the most frequent gamblers of any group in the general population.

In other words, casinos appear to attract very committed gamblers who gamble a lot more than the rest of the general population. When analyses were repeated for the comparison between casino gamblers and other gamblers, a very similar pattern of results emerged Table 4. Casino gamblers reported over twice the rate of poker machine gambling; almost double the rate for horse and dog racing; and were almost 5 times more likely to engage in sports betting and private card games.

They were also more likely to gamble on the internet or engage in day trading. They were, however, significantly less likely to report having gambled on lotteries than other gamblers.

This effect once again very likely reflects the age profile of casino gamblers and the fact that lottery participation in younger people is often lower than in older samples. Casino gamblers were over three times more likely to be problem gamblers and moderate risk gamblers and were significantly less likely to be in the no risk category.

They were, however, no more likely to report problem gambling in their immediate family Gamblers were also asked how much they typically gambled in a given session.

A comparison of casino and other gamblers is shown in Table 4. As indicated, casino gamblers typically spend a lot more money. The results confirm that casino gamblers tend to be people who are prepared to spend larger amounts on gambling in general.

The results indicated that casino gamblers were less likely to report doing this alone, but were more likely to do this when gambling with friends. In other words, the impression was that casino gambling is a more social activity than other forms of gambling. They results are shown in Table Gamblers were also asked whether they engage in binge gambling on occasions. This was reported by